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Present Simple

present simple

Quando falamos da nossa rotina, devemos usar o present simple. Como no português, temos vários usos para o present simple em inglês que vai corresponder ao nosso presente do indicativo.

A boa notícia é que no inglês a conjugação é bem mais simples do que no porutguês e você não vai precisar se preocupar com tantas pessoas e número. 

Leia também: 10 Dicas para aprender mais rápido 

Quando usar o present simple?

1 – Quando estivermos falando de rotina ou ações repetidas com advérbios de frequência: always (sempre), usually (geralmente), generally (geralmente mais formal),  often (com frequência), sometimes (às vezes), rarely (raramente), seldom (raramente), never (nunca):

We go to the cinema sometimes. (Nós vamos no cinema às vezes)

I always work from home.  (Eu sempre trabalho de casa)

She generally eats at that restaurant (Ela geralmente come naquele restaurante)

How often do you go to school? (Com que frequência você vai para escola?)

2 – As expressões de tempo que começam com ‘every’ e também para falar de ‘vez(es)’ como em: once (uma vez), twice (duas vezes), three times (três vezes), four times (quatro vezes):

I go running every weekend (Eu corro todo final de semana)

Every Saturday morning, I go to the supermarket (Todo sábado de manhã, eu vou no supermercado)

I eat at that restaurant three times a week (Eu como naquele restaurante três vezes por semana)

3 – Utilizamos o present simple para falar de situações permanentes:

I come from Brazil. (Eu venho do Brasil)

I live in London (Eu moro em Londres)

4 – Verdades científicas:

Water boils at 100 degrees (A água ferve a cem graus)

5 – Quando falamos do futuro expresso em horários previamente marcados, agendas e programações:

The concert starts at 7. (O show começa às 7)

My plane leaves at 8. (Meu avião sai às 8)

When do holidays begin? (Quando começam as férias?)

6 – Em oração de tempo que falam do futuro depois de as soon as (assim que), if (se), until (até) e when (quando):

I’ll see her when/as soon as she arrives. (Eu vou vê-la quando/assim que ela chegar)

Give this to Sue if you see her. (Dê isso a Sue quando vê-la)

You can’t apply for the job until you finish high school. (Você não pode se candidatar à vaga de emprego até terminar a escola)

7 – Com stative verbs: os stative verbs são verbos que raramente são usados na forma contínua. No geral, eles expressam opinão, sensações, compreensão, etc. Entre esses verbos temos: be, have, depend, know, think, understand, (dis)agree, like, want, hear, love, see, smell, taste:

They don’t have a car. (Eles não tem um carro)

Do you understand? (Você entende?)

I disagree completely. (eu discordo completamente)

Don’t be sad! (Não fique triste!)

You’re being weird. (Você está sendo estranho – podemos usar o continuous com o verb to be quando queremos indicar uma mudança de comportamento)

Conjugação do present simple

O present simple só tem flexão para a terceira pessoa do singular (he, she, it). Para realizar essa flexão apenas colocamos -s/-es. O -s é a regra geral, utilizaremos -es quando a regra ortográfica necessitar. Portanto, a conjugação de um verbo em inglês ficaria assim:

Eat = comer

I eat 

You eat 

He eats

She eats

It eats

We eat

You eat

They eat

Temos apenas dois verbos irregulares no present simple be e have. A conjugação do verb to be fica assim:

I am

You, they, we are

He, she, it is

Já, o verbo “have” (ter; tomar) fica assim:

I have

You have

He has

She has

It has

We have

You have

They have

I have breakfast in the car (Eu tomo café da manhã no carro)

My wife has breakfast in the car (Minha esposa toma café da manhã no carro)

Regras ortográficas:

A ortografia da terceira pessoa se altera como a do plural. Quando um verbo termina em -ch, -x, -o, -s, -sh, -z colocaremos -es. E quanto terminar em consoante -y colocamos -ies:

watch – watches (assistir)

fix – fixes (consertar)

go – goes (ir)

miss – misses (perder; sentir falta)

mix – mixes (misturar)

fish – fishes (pescar)

buzz – buzzes (zumbir)

study – studies (estudar)

Atente-se para o fato de que essas regras ortográficas se aplicam a terceira pessoa do singular apenas. E que a regra do -y necessita ter uma consoante antes, se for vogal o -y não passa para -ies:

She plays (Ela brinca)

Forma negativa:

Um dos segredos do inglês é entender como funcionam os auxiliares. São os auxiliares que realizam negativas e perguntas.

Para o present simple teremos o auxiliar ‘do’. Ele não tem qualquer sentido a não ser o de auxiliar o verbo principal. 

Utilizaremos o ‘do’ para perguntas e negativas quando não estivermos usando o verbo to be. Se a pergunta, afirmativa ou negativa envolver alguma ideia expressa como ‘ser’ ou ‘estar’, então teremos que usar o to be e não o ‘do’. 

Assim, para fazer o negativo colocamos don’t (do not) para todas as pessoas, menos para a terceira pessoa que fica doesn’t (does not). 

Observe que quando colocamos o doesn’t tanto nas negativas quanto nas perguntas, tiramos o -s da conjugação do verbo principal porque ele já está flexionado. É como se a flexão viesse “fora” do verbo:

I am not from Brazil. (Eu não sou do Brasil)

I don’t care (Eu não ligo)

She never does any of the activities. (Ela nunca faz nenhuma das atividades)

He doesn’t care (Ele não liga)

He doesn’t eats.

Forma interrogativa

Para fazer perguntas com verbos que não sejam o to be, como os que acabamos de estudar, você também usa o auxiliar do. O auxiliar deve ser conjugado para terceira pessoa e devemos tirar o -s do verbo principal. 

Se a pergunta envolver o sentido de ‘ser’ ou ‘estar’ devemos utilizar o verbo to be. E para fazer perguntas curtas utilizamos o ‘do’ ou ‘does’.

Veja:

You go to work everyday => Do you go to work everyday? Yes, I do/ No, I don’t.

She works everyday => Does she work everyday? Yes, she does/ No, she doesn’t.

Does she works on the weekends?

She has a car => Does she have a car? => She doesn’t have a car.

I love my work => Do you love your work? => I don’t love my work.

They study a lot => Do they study a lot? => They don’t study a lot.

Agora que você já aprendeu tudo sobre o present simple, por que não faz algun exercícios e depois lê alguns posts com outras lições gramaticais importantes do inglês?

Exercícios:

  1. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb:
  1. I _________ (get up) early everyday.
  2. My father __________ (not/ get up) late for work.
  3. In my family, we always ___________ (have) breakfast together, but we __________ (not/ talk) at the table.
  4. My mom just ___________ (have) coffee, she ____________ (not/like) to eat in the morning.
  5. My sister ___________ (study) in the morning, in the afternoon she ___________ (do) her homework.
  6. My brother __________ (go) on the internet, then he ___________ (watch) TV.

B. Translate the following sentences into portuguese:

  1. Minha mãe canta no chuveiro.
  2. Meu pai levanta cedo para trabalhar.   
  3. Eu uso um despertador.
  4. Meu melhor amigo se exercita de manhã.
  5. Meu irmão joga videogame todo dia.
  6. Meus amigos de escola não gostam de dever de casa.
  7. Minha irmã gosta das manhãs.
  8. Eu relaxo nos finais de semana.

C. Complete the calendar below with your routines. Write at least two activities for each day.

MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturdaySunday

D. Transform the following affirmatives into negatives and questions:

  1. She goes to work everyday.
  2. You sing in the shower.
  3. My mom checks her emails every morning.
  4. Our neighbor is from Paris.
  5. My friend’s mom is very beautiful.
  6. My sister takes English classes on the weekends.
  7. My coworkers are very friendly.

E. Read the text below and answer the questions:

Maria is a new student in the class. She’s from Mexico City originally. She has a very busy week. She has English class every day in the morning, then she teaches Spanish in the afternoon and she also works as a waitress at a bar in the downtown area. She also takes a Chinese class on Saturday. She doesn’t watch TV, and she doesn’t have time to relax with her friends.

  1. Where is Maria from?
  2. What does she do in the morning? And in the afternoon?
  3. What’s her occupation?
  4. Where is the bar she works at?
  5. Does she do anything on Saturday?
  6. When does she relax with her friends?

F. Suggestion: do a writing exercise like the one in exercise letter E. Talk about where you are from, your routine and what you do to relax. 

G. (Unifor-CE/2001)

In the age-old battle between independence-seeking teenagers and worried parents, the older generation is packing some new weapons. Caller ID tells parents who is calling their kids. Cell-phone bills detail every local number the kid has called. New computer programs track just about everything − every Web site visited, every e-mail sent − that a teenager does online.

Parental reconnaissance is going to get worse − or good, depending on your perspective.

(Wall Street Journal, Nov. 6, 2000)

Os verbos que estão no Simple Present, no texto, são:

a) detail – track – get

b) worried – visited – sent

c) is packing – is calling – is going

d) tells – detail – track

e) worried – has called – does

H. (Ufac/2010) Choose the alternative that best completes the sentence:

Charles normally ________ water, but now he ________ Coke.

a) drinks; is drinking.

b) is drinking; drinks.

c) was drinking; drinks.

d) drink; is drinking.

e) drinks, was drinking.

  1. Read the dialogue below and answer the questions:

Stan: So, what do you do after class? Do you go straight home?

Gabby: Well, usually. Sometimes I go to the gym, sometimes I see my friends or I study in the library.

Stan: When you see your friends, where do you go?

Gabby: Do you know that new restaurant on Madison Avenue? Tha italian restaurant.

Stan: Is it good?

Gabby: It’s ok! The food is good, but the service is terrible. The waiter there is so impolite sometimes! 

Stan: Well… actually, I work there now, I’m the new server!

Gabby: No kidding? I’m really glad to hear that. So, see you later, then!

  1. What does Gabby do after class?
  2. Does Gabby study in the library everyday?
  3. How often does she see her friends? 
  4. Where is the Italian restaurant?
  5. Does Gabby like the restaurant?
  6. Why doesn’t she like the service?
  7. Where does Stan work?
  8. What’s Stan’s occupation?

J.  Which expressions in the box go with the verbs below?

a classhomeworklessonsmusicsnacksthe laundry
dinnerbreakfastlunchon a teamsoccergames
  1. play:
  2. do: 
  3. eat:
  4. take:

   K. Translate the sentences below into English:

  1. Com que frequência você assiste TV?
  2. Eu não gosto de documentários.
  3. Sua mãe odeia desenho?
  4. Nós sempre assistimos filmes juntos em casa.
  5. Você não gosta desse filme?
  6. Eu amo assistir séries nos finais de semana.
  7. Meu irmão janta em frente à TV.
  8. Meus amigos e eu assistimos esportes na internet.

Respostas:

  1. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb:

I get up early everyday.

My father doesn’t get up late for work.

In my family, we always have breakfast together, but we don’t talk at the table.

My mom just doesn’t have coffee, she doesn’t have to eat in the morning.

My sister studies in the morning, in the afternoon she does her homework.

My brother goes on the internet, then he watches TV.

B. Translate the following sentences into portuguese:

Minha mãe canta no chuveiro = my mom sings in the shower.

Meu pai levanta cedo para trabalhar. = my father gets up early for work  

Eu uso um despertador. = I use an alarm clock

Meu melhor amigo se exercita de manhã.= my best friend exercises in the morning

Meu irmão joga videogame todo dia. =  my brother plays videogame every day. 

Meus amigos de escola não gostam de dever de casa. = my classmates/ friends from school don’t like homework

Minha irmã gosta das manhãs. = my sister likes the mornings

Eu relaxo nos finais de semana. = I relax on the weekends 

C. Complete the calendar below with your routines. Write at least two activities for each day.

As respostas são totalmente pessoais. Pesquisa na internet por verbos que você não conheça e outras atividades rotineiras em inglês. 

D. Transform the following affirmatives into negatives and questions:

She goes to work everyday. => she doesn’t go to work everyday => does she go to work everyday?

You sing in the shower. => you don’t sing in the shower => do you sing in the shower?

My mom checks her emails every morning. => my mom doesn’t check her emails every morning => does your mom check her emails every morning?

Our neighbor is from Paris. => our neighbor isn’t from Paris => Is our neighbor from Paris? 

My friend’s mom is very beautiful. => my friend’s mom is not very beautiful => is my friend’s mom very beautiful?

My sister takes English classes on the weekends. => my sister doesn’t take English classes on the weekends => does my sister take English classes on the weekends?

My coworkers are very friendly. => my coworkers aren’t very friendly => are my coworkers very friendly? 

E. Read the text below and answer the questions:

Maria is a new student in the class. She’s from Mexico City originally. She has a very busy week. She has English class every day in the morning, then she teaches Spanish in the afternoon and she also works as a waitress at a bar in the downtown area. She also takes a Chinese class on Saturday. She doesn’t watch TV, and she doesn’t have time to relax with her friends.

Where is Maria from?

She is from Mexico City.

What does she do in the morning? And in the afternoon?

She takes English classes in the morning, and in the afternoon, she teaches Spanish.

What’s her occupation?

She’s a teacher and waitress.

Where is the bar she works at?

The bar is in the downtown area.

Does she do anything on Saturday?

Yes, she does. She studies Chinese. 

When does she relax with her friends?

She doesn’t relax with her friends. 

F. Suggestion: do a writing exercise like the one in exercise letter E. Talk about where you are from, your routine and what you do to relax. 

G. d

H.a

I. What does Gabby do after class?

Generally she goes home, but sometimes she sees her friends, goes to the gym or studies in the library.

Does Gabby study in the library everyday?

No, she doesn’t.

How often does she see her friends? 

Sometimes.

Where is the Italian restaurant?

The Italian restaurant is on Madison Avenue.

Does Gabby like the restaurant?

She likes the food, but the service is not good.

Why doesn’t she like the service?

Because the waitress is impolite.

Where does Stan work?

He works at the Italian restaurant.

What’s Stan’s occupation?

He is a server/waiter.

J. Which expressions in the box go with the verbs below?

a classhomeworklessonsmusicsnacksthe laundry
dinnerbreakfastlunchon a teamsoccergames
  1. play: music, video games, on a team, soccer
  2. do: the laundry, homework
  3. eat: breakfast, dinner, lunch, snacks
  4. take: a class, lessons

K. Translate the sentences below into English:

  1. How often do you watch TV?
  2. I don’t like documentaries.
  3. Does your mother hate cartoons?
  4. We always watch movies/films  together at home.
  5.  Don’t you like this movie?
  6.  I love to watch series on the weekend.
  7.  My brother has dinner in front of the TV.
  8.  My friends and I watch sports on the internet.

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